State Standards: California Department of Education
California Standards Adopted August 2010.
The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should
seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding
importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and
proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in
the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding
(comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures
flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as
sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).