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Faculty Resources

Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Create Higher Order Thinking

Benjamin Bloom, while working at the University of Chicago in 1956, developed his theory on Educational Objectives. In 2001, the taxonomy was revised.  Below you will see the changes:

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The revised Bloom's also addresses the Cognitive Domain and the Knowledge Domain.  It is the cognitive domain that helps us write learning objectives.  Notice the hierarchical levels.  Undergraduate students are expected to move up through the three lower levels while graduate students are expected to work at the higher cognitive levels.

 The cognitive processes dimension - categories, cognitive processes (and alternative names)

Remember

Understand

Apply

Analyze

Evaluate

Create

Recognizing

Interpreting

Executing

Differentiating

Checking

Generating

(Identifying)

 

(clarifying, paraphrasing, representing, translating)

(carrying out)

(discriminating, distinguishing, focusing, selecting

(coordinating, detecting, monitoring, testing)

(hypothesizing)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recalling

Exemplifying

Implementing

Organizing

Critiquing

Planning

(retrieving)

(illustrating, instantiating)

(using)

(finding, coherence, integrating, outlining, parsing, structuring)

(judging)

(designing)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Classifying

 

Attributing

 

Producing

 

(categorizing, subsuming)

 

(deconstructing)

 

(construct)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summarizing

 

 

 

 

 

(abstracting, generalizing)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inferring

 

 

 

 

 

(concluding, extrapolating, interpolating, predicting)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comparing

 

 

 

 

 

(contrasting, mapping, matching)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Explaining

 

 

 

 

 

(constructing models)

 

 

 

 

Source 

Learning Objective Verbs

Remember

  • Define, recall, recognize, list
  • Remember, identify… was, is, did
  • Who, what, where, when / how many, how much
  • Acquire

Understand

  • Describe, compare, rephrase, contrast (abstract)
  • Put into your own words
  • Give an example, explain the main idea
  • What is most important, What caused this
  • What will probably happen
  • Translate, interpret, convert, transform, abstract

Apply

  • Apply, use, prepare, employ, classify, generalize, choose
  • Solve… which… how would you
  • Write an example
  • Explain, sequence, repair plan, operate

Analyze

  • Analyze, compare, detect, discover, identify, distinguish, order, outline, classify, discriminate, catalog, recognize
  • Investigate, explore, determine, estimate, observe
  • Identify motives or causes… support
  • Draw conclusions
  • Determine evidence… why
  • What reasons are given
  • What method is used
  • What words suggest, breakdown ideas

Evaluate

  • Evaluate, judge, measure, test, appraise
  • Select, verify, rank, check, argue
  • Assess… give your opinion and reasons
  • Decide which is the better picture/solution

Create

  • Integrate, propose, theorize, build, plan, formulate, specify, organize, systematize
  • Predict, construct, produce
  • How can we improve… write
  • What would happen if… develop
  • Design a plan, devise a model
  • How can we solve… synthesize

Modified from Faculty Orientation Handbook by George Drops 2006

Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy by Andrew Churches a thorough orientation to the revised taxonomy; practical recommendations for a wide variety of ways mapping the taxonomy to the uses of current online technologies; and associated rubrics

Bloom et al.’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain (Dr. William G. Huitt, Valdosta State University)

The Autumn2002 issue of Theory Into Practice (vol. 41/issue 4) includes the following articles:

Author Title Pages
Krathwohl, D. R. A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview 212-218
Pintrich, P.R. The Role of Metacognitive Knowledge in Learning, Teaching, and Assessing 219-225
Mayer, R.E. Rote Versus Meaningful Learning 226-232
Raths, J. Improving Instruction 233-237
Ferguson, C. Using the Revised Taxonomy to Plan and Deliver Team-Taught, Integrated, Thematic Units 238-243
Byrd, P.A. The Revised Taxonomy and Prospective Teachers 244-248
Airasian, P.W. & Miranda, H. The Role of Assessment in the Revised Taxonomy 249-254
Anderson, L.W. Curricular Alignment: A Re-Examination 255-260

The Best Resources For Helping Teachers Use Bloom’s Taxonomy In The Classroom (Larry Ferlazzo’s Websites of the Day…)

*Anderson, L.W. (Ed.), Krathwohl, D.R. (Ed.), Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M.C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Complete edition). New York: Longman. [Request through Books Direct]

Source

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