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Writing Center: APA

APA Help

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Click here to check the APA Step-by-Step guide! You'll find sections from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, video tutorials, handouts, and other guidance to help you with formatting and citation.

Purdue Online Writing Center (OWL): Provides examples for nearly every type of APA reference and much more.

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More About APA

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) are unique alphanumeric codes used to identify and link to articles.  New citation rules for APA require that DOIs be listed, if available, in place of the database availability phrase previously used. 

   ...If a DOI is not available, the journal publisher's URL is used. Try the free DOI Look-up service below from

Below is a reminder of some common formatting details that sometimes are overlooked.

  • Spacing: Citations need to be double-spaced.
  • Hanging indent: Indent all but the first line of each citation (the opposite of how you indent a paragraph!).
  • Capitalization: For book or article titles, only capitalize the first word of the title, and subtitle. Also capitalize proper nouns.
  • Italicization: Book titles and journal titles with the volume number need to be italicized; do not italicize article titles.
  • DOI: For electronic materials, if you have a doi#, you do not need to include the database name.

Academic Writer provides a template for writing.  Check out the WRITE tab. Set up your personal account to save your work.


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Citing your work is about more than just fulfilling the requirements for your assignment. Under U.S. Copyright Law, the creator of an original work (for example, an author) has the right to be credited for their work. Thus, it is a legal and ethical issue to document the sources you use. It is as well a demonstration of your trusted membership within the larger community of scholars.